Multiple Intelligence Theory

Howard Gardner identified 7 intelligences when he first published Frames of Mind in 1983:

  1. Visual-Spatial: The ability to visualize objects in various perspectives and recognize visual details. The ability to learn through visuals and create visual arts.
  2. Bodily-Kinesthetic: The ability to use your body for communication and physical activities such as dancing and sports. The ability to learn through hands-on activities, acting out, and role-playing.
  3. Musical-Rhythmic and Harmonic: The ability to create music, identify sounds, recognize harmony and have rhythm. The ability to learn through lyrics and rhythms.
  4. Interpersonal: The ability to understand others, befriend others, and interact with them. The ability to learn through interaction, group activities, and dialogue.
  5. Intrapersonal: The ability to understand your interests, goals, strengths, weakness, and confidently offer opinions. The ability to learn through independent study, self-reflection and introspection.
  6. Verbal-Linguistic: The ability to use language effectively, . The ability to learn through thinking out loud, say and see words, and read books in groups.
  7. Logical-Mathematical: The ability to reason, calculate, conceptualize, think abstractly, and see paterns and relationships. The ability to laern through logic games, experimentation and mysteries.


  1. Gardner, H. (2004). Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences (20th anniversary edition). New York, NY. Basic Books, a member of the Perseus Group.

Culturally Relevant Pedagogy

A pedagogy of opposition not unlike critical pedagogy but specifically committed to collective, not merely individual empowerment. Culturally relevant pedagogy aims to fulfill the following three criteria:

  1. Students must experience academic success.
  2. Students must develop and/or maintain cultural competence.
  3. Students must develop a critical consciousness through which they challenge the status quo of the current social order.


  1. Ladson-Billings, G. (1995). Toward a theory of culturally relevant pedagogy. American Educational Research Journal, 32(3), 465-491.