Multiple Intelligence Theory
Howard Gardner identified 7 intelligences when he first published Frames of Mind in 1983:
- Visual-Spatial: The ability to visualize objects in various perspectives and recognize visual details. The ability to learn through visuals and create visual arts.
- Bodily-Kinesthetic: The ability to use your body for communication and physical activities such as dancing and sports. The ability to learn through hands-on activities, acting out, and role-playing.
- Musical-Rhythmic and Harmonic: The ability to create music, identify sounds, recognize harmony and have rhythm. The ability to learn through lyrics and rhythms.
- Interpersonal: The ability to understand others, befriend others, and interact with them. The ability to learn through interaction, group activities, and dialogue.
- Intrapersonal: The ability to understand your interests, goals, strengths, weakness, and confidently offer opinions. The ability to learn through independent study, self-reflection and introspection.
- Verbal-Linguistic: The ability to use language effectively, . The ability to learn through thinking out loud, say and see words, and read books in groups.
- Logical-Mathematical: The ability to reason, calculate, conceptualize, think abstractly, and see paterns and relationships. The ability to laern through logic games, experimentation and mysteries.
Culturally Relevant Pedagogy
A pedagogy of opposition not unlike critical pedagogy but specifically committed to collective, not merely individual empowerment. Culturally relevant pedagogy aims to fulfill the following three criteria:
- Students must experience academic success.
- Students must develop and/or maintain cultural competence.
- Students must develop a critical consciousness through which they challenge the status quo of the current social order.